HALL MONITOR — Hills To Die On

February 2, 2018

By Jay Bullock

Last month, I noted Chicago Public  Schools does a significantly better job of educating students in the middle-school grades than Milwaukee Public Schools. And I noted no one seems entirely sure why, or what kinds of things MPS could do to turn itself around.

In one of those cosmic coincidences, a couple of days after I submitted the column I learned of Karin Chenoweth’s new book, Schools that Succeed.

Chenoweth penned an op-ed for the Washington Post headlined, “Yes, there are high-poverty public schools that operate at a high level. Here’s how they succeed.” Not wanting to give away all of the secrets of her book, Chenoweth didn’t give step-by-step instructions for fixing everything.

But she did say these successful schools “focus on improving the knowledge and skill of the adults in schools and give them the time and space to collaborate about what kids need to learn and how to teach it.”

Yes! I almost shouted aloud before considering what everyone else in the coffee shop would say. This!

This — the sense that groups of professionals do what they do better, when their leaders trust them to work together on a problem. This is one thing missing from many MPS schools.

I have covered this before in this space, but it is worth noting again: teachers’ time is monopolized and micromanaged to an almost unbearable degree. At a school board meeting in 2017, teachers unrolled a yards-long handwritten list of all the things that administration expects us to do during our ever-shrinking professional preparation time. Paperwork and other non-student centered tasks have increased dramatically since 2011, the year our ability to bargain collectively about working conditions ended.

The board listened and reduced that micromanaged time a smidge. But I still spend 35 minutes every single day in a before-school meeting. I also spend hours more each week in structured “collaborative planning” time that lacks the authentic collaborative atmosphere described by Chenoweth.

We need that atmosphere in Milwaukee. This is not negotiable. It is a hill I would die on.

Okay, the war metaphor may be overkill, and cliché, but I have been thinking about it a lot lately and about the choices some people are making about their own hills.

For example, an MPS school board committee meeting held January 9th was packed to capacity with an audience that was very angry about raises given some central-office administrators. Those raises had been budgeted last spring and the budget that was finalized in November included those raises.

But because one or more of the raises may have been granted without sufficient school board review — one raise was halved after disclosure of this fact — it drew the attention of teachers and parents. They showed up at the meeting angry. One of the teachers was escorted out of the auditorium by security staff.

The raises, atop the fact that the central office added five administrative positions, when more than 150 classroom positions were eliminated, looked really bad for the administration. Terrible optics, as they say.

But the cost of the raises, $100,000 a year, is one-tenth of one percent of the district’s spending, and it is not even enough to pay for a whole teacher position. It is hardly a hill to die on.

On the other hand, a board hearing two weeks later about what the 2018-2019 budget might look like drew fewer than half the audience of the board meeting covering those raises. There were about a dozen who spoke, advocating for better pay and benefits, especially for substitutes and paraprofessionals, but there was none of the fire of the previous meeting.

When given an opportunity to influence budget decisions in advance, the energy and effort just wasn’t as strong as people’s outrage after the fact.

That didn’t mean the board members didn’t have a hill in the fight. At that budget hearing, the board members fought contentiously among themselves about how to avoid a projected $38.7 million budget shortfall next school year.

Some, including Bay View resident and at-large school board member Terry Falk, wanted to add the sentence, “Consider cuts to central office staff,” to the text of the district’s “budget parameters,” which guide the writing/content of the full budget. A heated argument followed about the value of the district’s administrative offices and officers, with Falk’s motion ultimately failing in a 6-2 vote, a telling indication of what hill the board seems willing to die on.

Falk, it should be noted, was the first to sound the alarm on those administrative raises.

In other cases, people are picking a good hill to die on, just on the wrong side.

For 2017-2018, MPS moved from four district calendars to two. They consolidated year-round schools, IB high schools, and other schools with grades 9-12 onto a single calendar with students starting August 14. Other schools kept a post-September 1 start date.

The plan was to move all schools, beginning in 2018-2019, to a unified calendar with a mid-August start date. This makes sense. Early start is great for high schools, and moving to a single unified calendar saves MPS money and helps families with children in multiple schools and grades.

But district elementary teachers and parents chose the September-start-date hill to die on, and the calendar next year will be exactly as it is this year. With a looming deficit, now seems like the worst time to perpetuate a financially inefficient system. How many teachers will be laid off because of the calendar they themselves advocated?

The next few months will be tough, as the MPS budget process gets underway for real. I encourage everyone involved — board members, teachers, parents, students, and taxpayers — to think carefully about what hills they’re willing to die on.

Jay Bullock teaches English at Bay View High School and tweets as @folkbum.


HALL MONITOR — MPS State Report Card Slightly Improved

December 30, 2017

By Jay Bullock

MPS State Report Card Slightly Improved
But a deeper look highlights Milwaukee’s woes

It’s never a good sign when you or your place of employment is in the New York Times as the bad example, a cautionary tale.

Yet there we were in December, Milwaukee Public Schools, as part of a story on the newspaper’s blog, The Upshot. After looking at data prepared by the Stanford Education Data Archive, writers Emily Badger and Kevin Quealy heaped praise upon the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) for helping struggling students make up lost ground. According to the story, Chicago students make six years’ worth of gains in the five years between third and eighth grade.

“By comparison,” Badger and Quealy wrote, “children in the Milwaukee Public Schools test at similarly low rates in the third grade but advance more slowly, leaving them even further behind by the eighth grade.”

I can’t argue. As an MPS high school teacher, I see the effects of this slow rate of growth every day. The Times story shows that MPS eighth graders are, on average, over two grade levels behind, which squares pretty well with what I see in my classrooms.

It also squares with state data for MPS. Overall, we improved on the state report cards for 2017. But we were not so hot in middle school.

For example, 2017’s eighth graders were less likely to score proficient or advanced than 2016’s seventh graders, who were, theoretically, the exact same students. Somehow, in just one year those students’ rate of proficiency fell by three percentage points in reading and two percentage points in math.

It’s worth pointing out a couple of things to consider if you want to make the comparison between MPS and CPS. Notably, MPS has a much higher percentage of students with disabilities — 20.1 percent to Chicago’s 13.7 percent. MPS students are also more likely to be economically disadvantaged.

The Times story presents third- and eighth-grade test scores graphed against community wealth for 2000 districts. The graph follows a clear and familiar pattern; there are above grade-level scores in places with above-average income and low scores in poor districts.

That’s not the point of the Times story, of course, which is about growth rates. The growth-rate graph still shows a strong relationship between money and achievement, with students in richer districts improving more over five years. But there are many more outliers, including CPS, which is way out there, almost by itself. It clearly has above-average growth for a city as poor as it is.

For this Milwaukeean, it’s been hard to understand why Chicago is making so many gains over the last five years, and this story is not the first to suggest that our neighbor to the south has answers to questions that stymie us.

Plumbing the depths of my social networks didn’t offer any clarity, and the Times story isn’t able to point to an answer, either. It cites only one Chicago school that is trying a bunch of different things.

The best the authors can do is make generic statements like, “Across the district, data about attendance and grades is being used to identify the students likely to need extra attention,” as if the same thing isn’t already happening all over the country, including in MPS.

Even the University of Chicago’s Consortium on School Research, whose job it is to work with Chicago Public Schools to improve education, can’t “untangle what’s been effective,” according to the Times. The consortium’s website offers a number of optimistic reports, but most are about programs that are less than five years old, so they are not solely responsible for long-term growth.

What the Times story offers, ultimately, is an affirmation of why I go to work every day. There is hope we can make a difference even in the face of tough odds. We have to try.

The Times story is clear about why the odds are tough. No matter how much ground a student can make up in an urban district like Milwaukee or Chicago, it is no match for the advantage conferred by wealth.

Badger and Quealy observed, “The most effective school systems alone can’t overcome all the disadvantages of poverty that accumulate before children even reach third grade and that shape the country’s racial achievement gaps.”

There will be no real revolution in education reform if there is no improvement of income inequality.

Let’s see if we can do something about that in this new year.

Jay Bullock teaches English at Bay View High School. Email mpshallmonitor@gmail.com. 


HALL MONITOR — Here We Go Again, Budget Edition

December 2, 2017

Jay Bullock

Since the end of Hall Monitor’s summer hiatus, every column has felt like a variation on the theme here we go again!

Why should this month be any different?

It might have been different had recent trends held. For a few years, Milwaukee Public Schools found itself in relatively good fiscal condition. Layoffs ended and we made a big deal about expanding programs and offerings. The district even built up a small surplus. This year, though, we flash back to the soul-crushing budget deficits of years past. Here we go again!

In October, the Milwaukee Board of School Directors had to patch a several-million dollar hole in this year’s budget, even though the district had cut almost 200 jobs before the school year started.

MPS is also projecting a $20 million deficit for the 2018-19 school year, and a $70 million deficit in just a few years after that, as projected costs outpace revenue.

In the context of its billion-dollar budget, MPS’s $20 million shortfall may not seem like much. But it means the loss of 200 teachers. Or 300 paraprofessionals. Or a Chromebook for every student.

Or replacing every drinking fountain in every school with one of those fancy, filtered bottle-filling stations. Take that, lead pipes!

MPS is not the only struggling Wisconsin school district. Last month, eight state districts put 10 funding referenda on the ballot, according to the state database that tracks them. Seven passed. Since 2016, nearly 240 school funding referenda have been put to a vote in Wisconsin, with 72 percent passing.

Much fault lies with the state, by far the largest source of funding for school districts. The medium-term solution is pretty clearly changing minds at the state level — if not changing the legislators themselves — so that Wisconsin’s investment in public schools returns to previous levels.

The long-term solution for MPS is increased enrollment. Fewer than 60% of school-aged children in town currently attend MPS schools; that’s a lot of missing revenue.

But medium- and long-term solutions won’t solve next year’s budget problem. What can MPS do in the short term?

From teachers, I hear suggestions ranging from laying off all the administrators to cutting school board members’ pay to zero. (One teacher tried to convince me that until recently the elected board worked for free, but they have actually been paid a salary, since at least 1935.)

MPS’s middle management possesses a redundant layer or two. For example, in the space of a few weeks this fall, my school was visited by both a “School Quality Review Team” and “Monitoring Conference Team.” Each was from the central office, each looked at what we were doing to improve student achievement, and each team reported to different bosses, who in turn provided different feedback to us. Did we really need both? Merely removing one of those layers of central office supervision would do nothing to redress the deficit.The district would have to cut over half its administrative positions to come close to saving $20 million. And as hard as it is for the teaching staff to function with redundant layers of supervision, I wouldn’t want to be here if there’s no supervision.

No, what we’re really talking about is closing schools and cutting compensation.

MPS still has far more capacity in its buildings than it does students. The district is currently writing a new facilities master plan. The previous one is from 2011. The new plan will certainly call for shuttering buildings and moving other programs around.

That will suck. No teacher wants their school closed after they’ve invested time, energy, and probably their own money in their classroom. And it’s not fair to the students who will be forced to switch schools. But it’s coming.

It will also suck when teachers and other employees are asked to give back salary or benefits, especially considering that everyone agrees, from the superintendent to the union to the nonpartisan Public Policy Forum, that teacher retention in MPS is a major problem. A recent study by the forum found MPS teachers are 50 percent more likely to leave than teachers in neighboring districts. So asking teachers to take a $4,000 cut, which is what it would take to save $20 million without layoffs, is just a bad idea.

A better idea might be to offer a couple of furlough days, or to reduce the staff academic calendar from 191 days to 189.

This past August, every teacher in the district sat through five days of professional development (PD) before school started. There’s a PD day at the end of the year, after we’ve turned in our grades and locked up our classrooms for the summer. And the day before Thanksgiving was, yep, a PD day.

If MPS wants to hang on to all those PDs (but come on, really?), they could drop our two paid holidays (Thanksgiving and either Labor Day or Memorial Day).

Two furlough days will cut pay by about one percent. Low-paid hourly employees, like paraprofessionals and aides, would be hurt most, and we should be sensitive to that. MPS is working on a plan to raise its minimum hourly pay to $15 by 2021, so that may soften the blow.

However, two unpaid non-work days for everyone would save the district about $6 million, but that would not take care of the entire deficit. We will still need to close a modest number of schools, and, maybe, not hire new employees for those positions that opened due to retirements. Yet those manageable cuts would mean the district could squeak by next year without layoffs or undoing its investment in arts and other programs.

The year after, when the deficit nearly doubles to $37 million? We’ll have to talk about that next fall, when I’ll be saying here we go again!

Jay Bullock teaches English at Bay View High School and tweets as @folkbum.


HALL MONITOR — What Has Changed?

November 1, 2017

By Jay Bullock

I was filling out a survey the other day and realized I’d moved to a new demographic box. This is my twenty-first year of teaching.

I shook off the creeping sense of mortality and sat down to write my column this month, and then I realized that I’m in a new box here, too. This is my eleventh year writing for the Compass.

So I am pausing to reflect on the last 20 years in the Milwaukee Public Schools and the last 10 as an in-print school district “hall monitor.”

In an organization the size of MPS, you’d expect a lot of systemic inertia. In the past two months, I’ve written about some of the things that haven’t changed — unrealistic expectations placed on teachers, ever-increasing standards for students without needed supports, silly euphemisms used for “failing.”

But overall, in the last 10 or 20 years, what has changed? Almost everything.

Also, basically nothing. Let me explain.

Infrastructure

Over my tenure at the Compass, much of my writing has been about school closings, or threatened closings. However, with one exception, every single Bay View-area MPS school building is still open and full of students.

The exception is Dover Street School, which is being renovated to hold Howard Avenue Montessori students beginning in the 2018-2019 school year.

But that’s not the only change. Fritsche Middle School is no more; in 2010, the students and staff were moved to the Bay View High School building. But now the high school is back to holding only grades 9-12.

The old Fritsche building is now Milwaukee Parkside School for the Arts, a merger of Tippecanoe and Dover. Howard Avenue Montessori occupies the Tippecanoe building. Riley is now a bilingual Montessori school. Fernwood Montessori is bigger than it used to be, with more building and more students.

Students

Kids are still kids, I always say when people ask me how teaching is going now compared to way back when. It’s true, but also too facile an answer.

When I started teaching, students generally didn’t like reading — wouldn’t read the books for homework, wouldn’t volunteer to read aloud in class. They didn’t like writing, either. “A whole page? That’s terrible!” they said then.

Now the only thing different is the language of complaint: “A whole page? You’re forcing it!” they say.

Yet every single student I teach today is reading and writing significantly more than 10 years ago, and far more than 20 years ago.

Credit the iPhone! The ubiquity of smart phones has made text-based interaction so much more common. Students text, snap, and inbox each other hundreds or thousands of words a day.

That translates to students submitting assignments in so many more ways than just paper and pen, including “typing” papers with their thumbs. I have a set of Chromebooks for my class, use Google Classroom daily, and receive memes that are tweeted at me. Each of my curriculum units is peppered with video, and I have a YouTube channel dedicated to writing instruction.

I still grade work (another way I used to be deemed “terrible” but now am informed I am forcing it), but it’s no longer about points. It’s about evidence of proficiency, with a scoring system based on the Common Core State Standards, adopted pretty much nationwide.

Funding

When I started teaching in MPS, school communities fought the central office over funding. When I started writing here, school communities were fighting the central office over funding. Today, school communities are fighting the central office over funding.

One or two decades ago, there was a belief among the school communities that MPS had the funding to adequately pay for all we demanded, if the district would just prioritize differently.

Now, however, it’s clear MPS is being massively shortchanged by the state. Because Wisconsin lawmakers have kept funding increases below the rate of inflation for years and promoted policies that have whittled district enrollment to record lows, the budget seems to be all scraps and no meat at all.

Because the pickings are even leaner, the ever-present sense of mistrust between labor and management persists. It’s both better and worse than before.

I have said often, lately, that the superintendent and the union are working closely and cooperatively on many big-picture projects to improve student achievement. But the passage of Act 10, the 2011 law stripping almost all collective bargaining power from teachers unions, means teachers have to struggle, scrape, and claw for any win, like a sliver more prep time or pay that honors our loyalty.

Still Worth It

In the end, I guess I can say this: What frustrates me now, fueled my righteous indignation back the. What made the fight worth it then, still sustains me now.

Some say history is not a line but a spiral, the same things keep coming back around. It’s true! If I’m still here doing this in another 10 years, you for sure will hear about it.

Jay Bullock teaches English at Bay View High School and on YouTube at bit.ly/bullocksrules.


HALL MONITOR — Don’t Make Milwaukee Lake Woebegon

October 1, 2017

By Jay Bullock

When Garrison Keillor retired from A Prairie Home Companion last year, his News from Lake Woebegon segment retired with him.

In that fictional Minnesota town, “all the women are strong, all the men are good-looking, and all the children are above average.”

It always drove me crazy when I heard that slogan. You simply can’t call everyone above average. Half of any group will always be below average. Average also has a specific meaning when describing academic
achievement.

Last month I wrote about the mandates handed down to teachers from the Milwaukee Public Schools administration. One is to publicly post student scores from the STAR “universal screener” test, such as the percentile rank for every student.

Percentile rank shows, after Johnny takes the STAR, that Johnny reads or does math better than some percent of all students who take the test. If Johnny’s at the 80th percentile, he’s smarter than 80 percent of students his age. If Johnny’s at the 50th percentile he’s, well, average.

MPS uses percentile ranks to create “target” scores. Students can be above, at, or below the target based on their percentile rank.

You have perhaps guessed the punch line: To be “on target,” students must be well above average, at least in the 60th percentile for reading and at least in the 75th percentile in math. In fact, students can no longer be “above target” in math at all. A student scoring at the 100th percentile, better than pretty much any other child taking the STAR nationwide, is merely “on target.”

MPS told teachers these unrealistic targets will “better predict proficiency” on the state achievement tests — Wisconsin Forward Exam and ACT Aspire.
I hate to say it, but this almost makes sense, given the state’s massive recent shift of proficiency goalposts.

States started moving proficiency goalposts in the late 2000s as they realized that the 100 percent proficiency demanded by 2002’s “No Child Left Behind Act” was impossible.

Because states feared punitive measures for missing universal proficiency, they applied for waivers from the U.S. Department of Education. That process demanded states adopt stricter proficiency standards. In 2012, Wisconsin opted, like many other states, to use standards defined by the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP), or “the nation’s report card”.

This was a mistake.

We can debate whether Wisconsin’s previous proficiency standards were too high or too low, but according to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) we were, again, average.

Since the switch, however, barely half of Wisconsin’s students score proficient or higher on annual state tests. Regardless of your opinion of MPS or public education in general, it is simply ridiculous to think half of Wisconsin kids can’t read or do math at grade level, especially when we continue to score well versus other states on measures like the ACT.

At the time of the shift, both NAEP and individual states used the word “proficient.” But they did not mean the same thing. States typically defined proficient as at grade level, a bit above average but not in the top tier. In other words, grades of A and B. Maybe a C+.

But NAEP called that same level of achievement “basic.” “Proficient was akin to a solid A,” according to Diane Ravitch, former NAEP board member and current education-reform skeptic.

NCES data show that before states started moving goalposts, not a single state’s definition of “proficient” met the NAEP standard of “proficient” in math. In reading, just a handful did.

When it began in the 1970s, NAEP didn’t label student achievement at all and only began to do so under pressure in the 1990s. The process of defining levels like basic or proficient was plagued by scandal. Repeated reviews, including one by the non-partisan General Accounting Office in 1993, declared NAEP measures of proficiency should not be used as a model
or reference point by anyone else.

But here we are, describing virtually every MPS student as “below target” because of those NAEP definitions.

Oh, come on, Jay, you say. Doesn’t the below target label light a fire under these kids?

No.

In fact, recent research indicates that the more we tell underprivileged students they are failures, and that this failure is because of their own action (or inaction) rather than larger systemic issues, the more likely they are to see a decline in self-esteem and an increase in risky behavior.

We tell successful students, you know, the children in Lake Woebegon, or, in Milwaukee’s wealthier suburbs, that success comes from hard work and “grit.” Those students see no problem with that. They and their families are generally successful. The meritocracy is working as intended!

But a study published this summer in the journal Child Development reports that when told the same thing, struggling students attribute failure to their own flaws: I didn’t work hard enough, maybe, or I guess I don’t have grit. This leaves them less likely to bother trying because they internalize these messages and think they’ll just fail anyway.

In June the study’s lead author told The Atlantic “there’s this element of people think of me this way anyway, so this must be who I am.”

Yes, student effort does affect student achievement. But decades of research shows the best predictor of achievement is not “grit” but the zipcode children are born in. Centuries of American segregation and economic inequality weigh more heavily than grit on MPS students’ achievement.

Neither my students nor I can fix segregation and economic inequality. Why, then, force my students to feel that much more marginalized? I am not asking we lie; students below grade level should be identified and helped to improve.

But we should also be able to tell our grade-level students that they’re successful, rather than telling them they are “below target.” Don’t try to make Milwaukee Lake Woebegon.

Jay Bullock teaches English at Bay View High School. Email him at mpshallmonitor@gmail.com.


HALL MONITOR — A Signature Euphemism; a Daft Solution

September 1, 2017

By Jay Bullock

Im so lucky! My school is a “signature school” in the Milwaukee Public Schools this year!

In 20 years of teaching I’ve seen my share of reform efforts and euphemisms. But “signature school,” as a way of indicating schools that failed to meet expectations on the last state report card, may be the craziest.

The designation entitles us to some bonus resources, like a “hotline” for administrators to call in emergencies (not, sadly, a Commissioner Gordon-style red phone) and “resources gathered to counter inequitable patterns,” whatever that means.

During a full week of professional development before students returned, teachers in “signature schools” were presented with a hefty list of “Classroom Set-up Expectations.”

These elicited actual laughs from my colleagues. A classroom library with a carpeted area, so students can sit at our feet? Where does that fit among the 40 desks for my sophomores? Posted weekly lesson plans? Come on, I have to adjust my lessons on the fly almost every day!

Let us not forget the in-class “cool down space,” complete with noise-canceling headphones, lavender-scented pillows, and “a small trampoline.” I am not making this up.

What’s not funny is mandatory posting of achievement, attendance, and discipline data on a “data dashboard,” updated hourly and prominently displayed outside the door of every “signature school” classroom.

This dashboard is clearly designed so central office personnel can see at a glance whether a classroom, and its teacher, are failing because getting to know us and our kids by investing real time among us simply takes too long.

The shame (guilt, stigma — pick your noun) associated with bad data on our dashboards is somehow supposed to motivate teachers and students to do better.

Here’s the thing, we have pretty clear evidence that data walls don’t work.

They originated with University of Chicago’s David Kerbow, who saw data visualization as a way for teachers and administrators to identify problems early. Private data walls in the office or staff lounge provide school adults with big-picture insight and prompt good discussion about what has worked, what hasn’t, and what to try next. They should be a tool for informing next steps, not for judging students or staff.

Importantly, there was never any intention to have “data walls” in view of students or the public. But why should that deter education reformers?

Despite the experiences of places like Holyoke, Mass., that had probably the most famous uproar in 2014, worthless public “data walls” have steadily spread among low-performing schools and districts nationwide.

Yet, we do know what does work. Let’s set aside policing-style classroom set-ups and shaming teachers and students, and instead focus on research-based solutions for “signature schools.”

So what works?

Achievement

Our must-post data comes from the district’s “universal screener” test, STAR. A screening test is not a test of student achievement; it is, as the label suggests, used to identify early students who need remediation and intervention.

STAR covers only math and literacy, and only in some grade levels. It is not aligned to district curriculum and it is given
just three times a year. My sophomores took the STAR test on August 28 and will not test again until January. Of what value is that January score to anyone visiting my class in, say, November? What use is STAR data posted outside of, say, an art class, ever?

No reputable researcher or organization anywhere recommends using screener data this way, including state and
national Response to Intervention (RtI) groups.

Better achievement happens when teachers track and celebrate individual student growth over time on specific
key skills, which can’t be reflected in a single number. Such growth should be monitored constantly, not checked a few times a year.

As noted by the Achievement Network, a national nonprofit that partners with schools to boost academics, “This is not just about looking at the numbers, but looking at student work that illuminates specific needs of students.” No data dashboard can do that.

Attendance

Evidence is overwhelming that attendance improves when schools make personal connections to students and families, including through dedicated mentors. Some MPS high schools benefit from City Year, an Americorps-funded program that places recent college grads in the role of mentor and interventionist for ninth-grade students only.

This is a start, but not enough, especially
as City Year interventions miss the vast majority of MPS students and don’t quite go far enough with those they do reach.

According to a guide for schools from Hanover Research, mentors should do more than make a few calls home and see students at school. They should “meet with parents and occasionally participate in home visits for students with attendance or behavior issues.” Mentors should “monitor student progress and work alongside families and communities to improve attendance.”

Behavior

We must post how long it has been since we wrote a discipline referral, like the signs in factories that read, “This plant has worked x days without an accidental injury.”

There is research to suggest that such workplace signs indeed help minimize
injury, but only after extensive safety training and building a shared sense of community responsibility among workers.

Posting referral data may well work when students have a shared sense of responsibility for each other. Simply posting it won’t do the difficult work of creating such a community.

MPS has made some baby steps with Restorative Practices and trauma-sensitive training. But how do creating tension, competition, and division through these artificial, meaningless “data dashboards” build a caring, connected community?

Real change requires complicated and undoubtedly expensive work. A “data dashboard” is easy and cheap, but utterly useless to anyone except those who want to make snap judgments about students and their teachers.

Jay Bullock teaches English at Bay View High School. Email him at mpshallmonitor@gmail.com.


Hall Monitor — The MPS Budget and the Resource Gap walked into a bar

June 1, 2017

By Jay Bullock

(something about taking square aim at WisGOP)

I’m not telling you something you don’t already know — the Milwaukee Public Schools budget is awful.

No one involved is happy about it. Superintendent Darienne Driver’s budget proposal and commentary lash out at state legislators forcing her to eviscerate programs. The district’s construction budget, for example, will be cut by a whopping 92 percent!

Board members are raising their voices at board meetings. Teachers are packing hearings demanding raises promised long ago. School principals are making gut-wrenching decisions about which staff can stay and which must go.

Most frustrating of all, students are looking at another year in a school system in a city that cannot hope to begin to bridge the gap between what’s available to them compared to what’s available to children living, in some cases, just blocks away in the suburbs.

This is my most common refrain. I feel like I should just get it printed on a sandwich board, “end-is-nigh-style”, and stand on a street corner screaming it. That might be as effective as all my previous warnings.

I have warned: Let’s talk about the much-storied 53206 zip code. The average annual household income is $32,000 — not a lot of money for raising a child.

Up in River Hills, 53217, home of State Senator Alberta Darling, a long-time opponent of MPS, the average household income is $282,000.

The difference between the two — a cool quarter mil, by my math — is what I call the Resource Gap. Imagine the experiences all that money buys: camps, music lessons, tutors, high-quality preschool, family vacations to foreign countries, rooms upon rooms upon rooms of books  to read. Multiply that by 18, the years between birth and graduation…

I am not saying schools have to be the place where the Resource Gap is redressed. I’m just saying, in this column at the end of this school term, just as I said in my September column,  schools are the place where we expect the gap to be made up. Year after year we are told that there’s no reason why children in Milwaukee can’t succeed at the same rates as their suburban peers.

I don’t know how I can make that more plain.

The state budget is not finished. For all I know, Republican Governor Scott Walker and the Republicans on the state’s budget-writing Joint Finance Committee, including Sen. Darling, will see the light and change the provisions that hit MPS so hard.

For example, the revenue cap, the grand total amount a district can collect from state aid and  local property taxes, remains flat. That means even though there may be some increases in state funding for MPS, those must be offset by reducing property taxes.

It is, for want of a better word, diabolical. It serves the short-term interest of property taxpayers at the long-term expense of our children. Yay for the local homeowner and his extra hundred dollars at the end of the year; boo for the 96 teachers and 98 educational assistants not in MPS classrooms come fall.

Superintendent Darienne Driver’s budget comments pull no punches. “Revenue is not keeping pace with inflation,” she wrote in her budget brief. “Stable revenues are not enough to sustain the district’s operations. (They) will not allow the district to continue prior year operations at even a modest increase to keep up with costs.”

Thus, cuts. Thus, broken promises on raises. Thus, an end to almost all capital improvements around the district.

Thus, another giant wedge driving the Resource Gap wider.

And Dr. Driver knows it. Her budget brief says, “Meeting the MPS vision is challenging within an environment of stagnant revenues, growing educational options, increased need for quality programming aimed at serving Milwaukee’s diverse student population, and regaining public confidence that the school district can provide students with a quality education.”

This is, on its face, an inarguable fact. Milwaukee’s kids deserve the same high-quality programs Alberta Darling’s neighbors have in their schools. MPS must regain the trust of Milwaukee families if it wants to increase enrollment. MPS is facing more competition from more directions than ever before.

All of that factors into the Resource Gap, or, as Driver calls it, “the need for quality programming aimed at serving Milwaukee’s diverse [poor and minority] student population.”

But it’s also a broadside aimed directly at Walker and Darling and the rest. The time for pinning failure on us is long past, Driver is saying. We can’t keep doing more with less. We will not go down without pointing out, to everyone who will listen, whose responsibility this really is, whose decisions are really the ones leaving Milwaukee’s children with less and less and less every year.

To be fair, the budget woes of MPS are hardly unique. District officials, school board members, and parent groups from every corner of Wisconsin have inundated budget hearings to voice complaints. Over the last three years, nearly 200 school district referenda have been on ballots around the state, most of them passing.

MPS has not gone to referendum, knowing the whole problem here is that Milwaukee families lack the resources in the first place.

As this goes to press, the Legislature has a few weeks left to finalize the state budget and how it affects MPS. If you, like me, believe the Resource Gap is real and that we have a moral and civic obligation to do something about it, here’s the phone number, 1-800-362-9472.

Jay Bullock teaches English at Bay View High School and wants to hear about your calls to Madison: mpshallmonitor@gmail.com


It’s the freshmen, it’s always the freshmen

May 1, 2017

By Jay Bullock

Recently, Milwaukee Public Schools Regional Superintendent Orlando Ramos was reported to be a finalist for several school district superintendent positions around the country.

Most MPS “regionals” supervise geographical areas — East, Southwest, Central, and Northwest. Not Ramos. He heads the High School region, which means he has the worst job in MPS.

As the person who oversees MPS high schools, Ramos is accountable for students at the end of 12 years’ worth of MPS education, but he controls only four of them.

The headline statistic that Ramos (and often MPS) is judged on is the district’s graduation rate.

With 83 percent of students graduating after their fourth year of high school in 2014-15, America as a whole was at an historic high, according to federal data. Just 20 years ago, that number was 71 percent. (Data from the 2015-2016 year is not yet available.)

For MPS, the 2014-15 graduation rate was only 59 percent. Worse, in Wisconsin, the gap between the white and black graduation rates is 27 percentage points, the widest in the nation, according to the Feds. In MPS, where the majority of Wisconsin’s black students attend school, the gap is 23 points: only 56 percent of black students in MPS graduate in four years, compared 69 percent of white students.

MPS does better with its six-year rate, giving students two more years to finish high school or an alternate program like GED. In 2014-15, our six-year rate was 72 percent, still terrible but closer to a respectable number.

MPS is not alone. Urban districts nationwide struggle with graduation rates and gaps, especially between black and white graduates, though obviously many urban districts were able to overcome some challenges that MPS hasn’t.

For example, an April article in Education Week detailed how the Chicago Public Schools system was able to boost its graduation rate from fewer than half in 2007 to 70 percent in 2014-15.

Working with researchers from the University of Chicago, CPS identified six keys to boosting graduation rates: Ease the transition from 8th to 9th grade. Boost attendance. Reduce out-of-school suspensions. Hold high standards for grades and achievement. Build school communities that take collective responsibility for student success. Use early-warning indicators to identify students who are off-track as soon as possible.

I can sum that all up in a single word: freshmen.

True, the “ease the transitions” plank of that platform explicitly refers to 9th graders. But the others all do implicitly, and I’ll return to Milwaukee to explain how, beginning with attendance.

While MPS has an overall 89 percent attendance rate, meaning eight of every nine students are in school on any given day, absences are not spread equally among all students.

In Milwaukee, 46 percent of students are habitually truant, meaning they miss 10 days or more in a year. At that point, likely graduation rates fall quickly to below 60 percent. At 20 days absent — just one absence every other week — graduation rates fall below 50 percent.

The worst attendance rate in MPS, a tepid 78 percent, belongs to freshmen, and fully 65 percent of freshmen are habitually truant.

The University of Chicago researchers note that “missing as few as five days per semester can make a student less likely to graduate from high school.”

Ninth grade also leads in suspensions. In 2014-15, 11 percent of all MPS students were suspended at least once. But 22 percent of freshmen were suspended, double the average. Freshmen also comprised 40 percent of all expelled students.

And so on. MPS freshmen come into high school well below grade level. On 2015-2016 state tests, only 11 percent of MPS 8th graders were proficient or higher in math (compared to 36 percent statewide) and 19 percent in English (40 percent statewide). It’s hard to have high standards for freshmen when so many struggle to meet the lower standards of middle school.

Freshmen grade point averages are also worse than those of their peers. In the most recent year that I could find data for, 2011-12 when MPS self-published a district report card, freshmen earned a sad 1.52 GPA on a four-point scale. The average for seniors, by comparison, was a 2.2. (Current data were not available from MPS by press time)

MPS 9th grade has higher enrollment than any other grade K-12 school. As the low GPAs, poor attendance, and high suspension rates suggest, many students repeat 9th grade. The exact number isn’t available in state data, but compared to 8th-grade enrollment, it looks like around 2,000 of the district’s nearly 7,000 freshmen are there for the second or third time. Freshmen, then, make up almost two-thirds of all MPS students held back a grade in a given year.

What’s the Answer?

Chicago has improved its success rate by paying attention to the factors listed above, and implementing freshmen families or academies, meaning a small group of teachers shares the 9th-grade class and can work more proactively, and faster, to intervene when students start falling behind. Some MPS schools do that now — including Bay View High School — and more will institute the program next fall.

MPS has made other changes, such as moving the start of high school to mid-August in order to minimize the “summer slide.”

But Chicago also does something desperately needed here. According to the University of Chicago group supporting changes in CPS, “students with low attendance and grades in middle school [are] flagged for early intervention before entering high school” (my italics).

In addition to sending kids on to high school without anything like 8th-grade mastery, MPS middle schools and K-8s have no good way to communicate all the red flags and supports needed for members of a high school’s incoming class.

Every year I watch as high-risk students sit in class — for more than a month — until the first round of district screening tests are completed.

Then, finally, five or six wasted weeks into the school year, students are placed in intervention classes or referred for special education services. That is, assuming the school even has those supports available, having not been informed beforehand that they would be needed.

This is why Orlando Ramos has the worst job in MPS. Sure, he can take credit for great MPS schools that always graduate world-class scholars and make it into various national top-schools lists. But he also has to manage the ongoing mess that is Milwaukee’s freshman class, with no ability to influence who makes up that class or what happens to them before they enter his region.

The district’s high school region is just two years old, and maybe the reorganization that created it will yield results eventually. For now, though, you couldn’t pay me enough to take on an impossible task like that.

Note: Unless otherwise stated, all data in this column are from the most recent statistics on the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction website.

Jay Bullock, who teaches English at Bay View High School, has approximately the 9,728th worst job in MPS. Email him at MPSHallMonitor@gmail.com.


PAREN(t)HESIS — Right sizing, decluttering

March 1, 2017

By Jill Rothenbueler Maher

The first signs of spring include the robins’ return, joggers out in force in our parks and on the Oak Leaf trail, and my own inklings of spring cleaning.

I have found that an easy way to keep things tidy at home is to have less stuff. I think that the architecture in Bay View lends itself to a more minimalist lifestyle than the suburbs because our older homes have small closets, our floor plans are unlikely to include a dedicated playroom for kids, and our garages are small, too.

Some of my friends swear by certain philosophers of decluttering such as Marie Kondo, author of The Life-Changing Magic of Tidying Up: The Japanese Art of Decluttering and Organizing and Spark Joy: An Illustrated Master Class on the Art of Organizing and Tidying Up. Kondo even specifies a certain way to fold clothing for maximum efficiency. Instead of following a specific author, I get my inspiration from my uber-organized mom. When my grade school friends came over, some would tease me that our house was tidy and quiet, reminding them of a library. She and my dad, now in their retirement years, still keep their home like that.

Intergenerational relationships can be especially tricky when it comes to clutter, especially the clutter of too many toys. Parents tell their own parents to stop buying so many toys but grandparents enjoy the gift giving. Once I sat on a plane next to a grandmother who told me she was bummed out that her adult son asked her to stop bringing so many McDonald’s Happy Meal toys and similar little gadgets when she visited her grandson. I replied that it felt like every parent my age was having the same conversation with their own parents, and the commonality seemed to reassure her.

Conflict over clutter can also be a sore spot within marriages and parenting relationships. When I read the comments to articles about clutter, inevitably some people mention how their views differ from that of a spouse or partner. The fundamental disagreement seems to cause lots of tension. Spending on toys that clutter the house can lead to that famous topic of marital disharmony, money!

In our house, we seem to do fairly well with Saturday sweeps that result in a pile for Goodwill donation and a stack of books for one of the area’s abundant Little Free Libraries. Peer pressure helps too, like when friends talk about decluttering success. And there’s the peer pressure of other people coming over, like when my husband and I host a party or my daughter has a friend sleep over. And as winter wanes, there are less snow pants, scarves, and mittens hovering about to clutter up the entryways.

Just like exercise routines, decluttering routines are probably best when they’re a regular part of every week. I clean out the questionable, ready-to-expire food from the refrigerator on most Sundays. Seems like a perfect time to also spend a few minutes decluttering our home—and clearing our minds in the process.

The author is a freelance writer and mother of one. Reach her with comments or suggestions at jill@bayviewcompass.com.


HALL MONITOR — Still too much testing

February 28, 2017

By Jay Bullock

It’s that time of year again, when all over the nation, teachers look out at their students and think, “Yippee! It’s standardized test time!”

As if. I don’t know a single teacher anywhere whose idea of a productive school day is watching, hawk-like, over students as they bubble in answers with the much-beloved Number Two Pencil or, more and more these days, peck out answers on a Chromebook keyboard. We would much rather be, you know, teaching.

Last month, the Milwaukee Board of School Directors got a report on how much testing happens in MPS schools — a sprawling chart of how many standardized tests are given, to how many students, and for what quantity of total time.

Not counting Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate exams, MPS students take nine different standardized tests between September and May. There is hardly a date on the MPS calendar that isn’t in one testing window or another.

This is too much. MPS pleads that these tests are the result of federal or state mandates, but not all are, and the ones that are don’t have to be so taxing.

Eighth- and tenth-graders have it the worst, spending, respectively, 14.3 hours and 13.6 hours per school year taking some kind of standardized test. Coming in a close third are, surprisingly, fourth graders, who also spend more than 13 hours a year taking tests.

Even kindergarten students take five hours of standardized tests a year. Seriously. Kindergarten.

This may not seem like a lot; those of you who aced your math ACT have already figured out that even the highest figures represent only about two school days of testing. True! However, standardized testing doesn’t happen for two days in a row.

Rather, testing is spread out over the school year, creating not two consecutive days of lost instructional time, but repeated disruptions that ripple through classes and entire schools.

For example, on February 28 this year, every eleventh-grade student in the state took the ACT, which is now the state’s accountability test for high schools. In MPS, that meant not just five hours of testing for juniors, but a lost day of school for all the other high school students, who stayed home that day.

It also meant hours of registration time, as guidance counselors walked every junior through bubbling in their names and other information on answer sheets, time that students were out of class and counselors weren’t counseling.

As always, teachers felt pressure to do ACT prep as test day approached. I know I sure did. It took needed time away from subject matter. And since last year, high schools are under a directive to convert as many classroom assessments as possible to the ACT Writing test format: a timed, 40-minute argument writing task. For many of us, that has meant twisting and contorting what formerly were engaging, authentic assessments and projects, into a form devoid of any pleasure or creativity. Because of ACT.

None of that was represented in the chart the board saw last month, nor were the corresponding curriculum corruptions that affected every grade level and that were caused by testing. Also absent was data that represented repeated testing of students in various academic intervention classes, where those students can take the same test 15, 20, or more times in a year. That’s enough to beat the spirit out of any student.

The report was in part spurred by changes to federal guidelines under the Obama administration, which in its last couple of years came around to the idea that testing is not necessarily the best, and should never be, the only measure of student, teacher, school, or district achievement. Obama’s Department of Education launched a plan in 2015 to reduce time spent on tests — genuinely good news.

But who knows where that initiative goes now under President Trump and his public-school-hating Secretary of Education, Betsy DeVos. DeVos has long supported groups like the American Federation for Children, who count on test data to argue for the expansion of school vouchers and the disruption of public education as a whole.

The board committee receiving the report spent, if you can believe this, 10 whole minutes on this critical issue. Most of that time involved the district’s director of assessment explaining how there will be a more detailed report of MPS testing practices later. Only one member of the public spoke.

Even normally garrulous Director Terry Falk, who requested this study of standardized testing in MPS, had very little to say on the matter. “I’m not getting the phone calls on testing that I would have gotten a year ago,” he said. Teacher complaints about time spent testing, he said, is a “residual reaction” to the slightly greater number of hours of testing students spent a couple of years ago.

Okay, okay, I will admit this: The testing report was the final item on the agenda of a long night that included heated discussions of things like closing schools and mandating school uniforms. I can appreciate that board members entering their sixth hour of meetings in an evening can start to lose attention and concentration. It’s almost as if being trapped for hours doing a repetitive, restrictive task can be bad for you…

I feel like there’s a lesson in that, somewhere.

Jay Bullock teaches English and proctors standardized tests at Bay View High School and tweets as @folkbum. 


HALL MONITOR — Uniformity, or spirit?

February 1, 2017

By Jay Bullock

Word on the street is that Milwaukee Public Schools will bring a second big reform item to its board for approval later this month.

The first, approved in December, was a change to the high school calendar so students would begin mid-August and finish by Memorial Day.

This second reform, part of a suite of ideas Superintendent Darienne Driver unveiled last fall, is mandating uniforms in all MPS schools. Driver has said MPS loses some students every year to private or charter schools because parents want their children in schools with uniforms because parents often see uniforms as a sign of a safe school.

Not every parent feels that way. At Bay View High School this August, we got calls from parents asking if we required uniforms, hoping to transfer their children out of Pulaski or Bradley Tech where those schools instituted a uniform policy this year.

Should the uniform policy pass, any MPS school could opt out through its school governance council, the board of teachers, parents, and administrators that sets priorities and reviews school budgets. Schools would also have latitude to say what, specifically, is meant by “uniform.” In any case, approval of the plan would likely send seismic ripples through the hearts and minds of the city’s parents, children, and, I suppose, Walmarts.

I kind of like the plan. Readers of this column will remember that I am pretty excited by Driver’s term to date, and readers of my other writing online will remember my initial support for the reform ideas she proposed.

But I want to use this space to qualify my support of the uniform plan, to explain the “kind of” in the last paragraph. It starts with an argument I have made many times, including here in the Compass — see my September 2013 column “Students in Motion,” for example.

It goes like this: Milwaukee’s decades-old status as the nation’s broadest education marketplace has served two generations of students, now parents themselves, who lack investment in a school community. Consequently their children lack school spirit.

When a Milwaukee parent can send a child to any one of 300-plus schools in a half-dozen communities, the incentive to find one and love it, own it, and really commit to it is very low. For a child, when teachers don’t impress you or administration holds too strict a line, the incentive to switch schools is very high.

Every year in Milwaukee, data tell us, about a third of students change schools when they don’t need to. It might be mid-year; it might be between fourth and fifth grade. It might be because parents have moved across town; it might be because a student was caught with a knife in his pocket. It might be because of low grades; it might be because a school just can’t meet a student’s special education needs.

Never is it because some other school’s got spirit, no matter what the cheerleaders may chant at a basketball game.

Uniforms could possibly  change that.

Research on uniforms in public schools shows mixed results — decreased academic success sometimes, increased attendance other times, and ambiguous effects on teacher retention and morale. This is partly because every district is different, but mostly because not many public schools or districts require uniforms.

Uniforms are, indeed, associated with certain kinds of private schools — religious schools and fancy prep schools, for example. In schools like that, the uniform often takes on a metaphorical meaning, not merely a sartorial one. That is, those schools expect their students to act, think, and simply be more uniform.

I expect nothing of the sort from the students in my MPS classroom. I oppose, as a general pedagogical matter, bland uniformity among what should be a group of vibrant and quirky and unique individual students.

But spirit? I want that! I want the students who walk my halls and grace my classroom to feel like they belong there.

What if, instead of mandating uniforms, we challenged students to don school-spirit wear instead?

School-branded t-shirts, hoodies, old football jerseys, and tee shirts in school colors could be the ideal middle ground between uniformity and free expression. And it could enhance students’ sense of school spirit and pride.

A lot of teachers have favorite places in their schools — staff lounges, classrooms with great views of the lake or sunsets, the doors to the parking lot.

I have a favorite spot at Bay View High School — a few square inches on the bottom step of the stairway just outside my classroom door. The terrazzo tread has borne a hundred years of adolescent footsteps and what was once a sharp right angle at the intersection of rise and run has worn to a soft curve.

Making all of my students wear the same polo shirt every day won’t do anything to help them feel the weight of history that I see on that stair every day. I don’t entirely know if mandatory “spirit wear” will do the trick, either, but I look forward to giving it a try.

Jay Bullock appreciates the quirky kids in his English classes at Bay View High School and tweets as @folkbum.


Renewing the call for politics in the classroom

January 7, 2017

Jay1headshotOne year ago in this column, I suggested that Milwaukee Public Schools should ease its stance on politics in the classroom, instead encouraging teachers and students alike to have reasonable, open dialogue on issues of the day. Research shows, I noted, schools can close some of the achievement gap by teaching culturally relevant and responsive material that would engage students with issues they care about.

In this age of social media, I argued, it is far likelier that students are seeing, reading, and commenting on news of the day, and MPS would be smart to channel that outside-of-school engagement into in-school learning activities. In fact, considering the studies following November’s election that show adolescents are much more likely than adults to fall for “fake news,” it’s probably more important than ever that critical thinking about current events be central to the curriculum.

I wasn’t talking about me, as the nature of my moonlighting, writing about politics and policy here and online, means I am extra careful about what I say and do in my own classes. But last month, things got much more personal.

Over my objection, Bay View High School, where I teach, used that January 2016 column as a source text for its Bay View Redcats Write Day, where students dedicate a full day to plan, write, and revise a single written argument. The topic was whether those seen as leaders in a community, including teachers, celebrities, and clergy, should be activists for social justice.

Other source texts included a video about Father James Groppi, BVHS alum and activist in Milwaukee’s fight against housing discrimination, and an op-ed about how when celebrities protest, they become the story, not their chosen issue.

The starting point for the op-ed was NFL quarterback Colin Kaepernick and his “taking a knee” during the national anthem this season to protest treatment of African Americans, particularly police killings of black men.

Just before Write Day, however, things got really weird. Kaepernick himself retweeted a picture of the BVHS girls basketball team also taking a knee during the national anthem at a home game. That photo ended up being seen hundreds of thousands of times on social media. The girls quickly drew both praise and criticism after a local news station ran a story on their action, with little thought given to why they protested.

To be clear, although I teach members of the team, I had no hand in their decision to protest. However, I could not have asked for a more perfect opportunity to test my theory. A lot of the criticism was just nasty hatred spewed toward the girls — “They have a right to be stupid.” “Disgusting little [expletives]!” “So sick of these scum bags.” “The inmates are running the asylum.” Some focused specifically on the fact that they were “representing” the school and as such should refrain from making political statements.

Alumni from various eras posted things like, “This is not my Bay View.” They demanded the girls be removed from the team and the coach disciplined, often accompanied by a threat to withhold donations to the school for allowing the protests to happen. Bay View residents said things like, “This doesn’t represent the Bay View community,” with three exclamation points and several crying emoji.

“What are the limits of what a person can do or say while acting as a representative of a bigger entity?” one person asked on a neighborhood Facebook group. They continued, “Bay View High School should not be expected to blindly allow nine students to be their local, state, or national voice, unless the message supports the mission of the school.”

This is why I wrote last year’s column in the first place. Many people believe that everyone walking through the schoolhouse door, especially teachers, but now, apparently, students must also shed all political or ideological thinking so they don’t “represent” the school in a way that might offend others.

That’s simply not possible: Our beliefs are not something we can hang up in a locker with our coats, and it is dangerous and counterproductive to try stifling the interests and energy of students when they actively engage in serious thought, debate, or protest. Critical thinking and reasoned argument is the mission of the school. Literally. It’s in our mission statement this year!

MPS and BVHS have not disciplined the girls for speaking out. That’s the right call and a call that should be extended to MPS adults who also advocate for social justice.

I still contend active politicking should be restricted. Teachers should refrain from trying to sway students’ votes and should not copy leaflets in the their lounge.

But MPS policy should not force the human beings in its schools who are teaching and learning — and playing basketball — to check their politics at the door.

Jay Bullock teaches English — and several members of the girls basketball team at Bay View High School. Email him at mpshallmonitor@gmail.com.  


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